Indirect Speech for All Tenses - Rules and Details- Learn English Grammar

Change of Tense

  1. जब Reporting Verb Present/Future Tense में रहता है , तब Indirect Speech में कहीं भी Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं  होता है ।
  2. जब Reporting Verb Past Tense में रहता है , तब Inverted Commas के भीतर प्रयुक्त Tense में परिवर्तन होता है । यह परिवर्तन इस प्रकार होता है -

Direct
Indirect
Simple Present
Simple Past
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Present perfect Continuous
Past Prefect Continuous
Simple Past
Past Perfect
Past Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
No Change
Past Perfect Continuous
No Change
Indirect Speech for All Tenses - Rules and Details- Learn English Grammar
Indirect Speech for All Tenses - Rules and Details- Learn English Grammar

Direct
Indirect
Shall/Will
Should/Would
Can
Could
May
Might
Am/Is/Are
Was/Were
Have/Has
Had
Was/Were
Had Been
Could/Should/Would/Might
Generally no change

Examples-

Direct
Indirect
He said to me, “I am your friend.”
He told me that he was my friend.
She said to me,“I am to help you."
She told me that she was to help me.
Sita said to me,“I love you."
Sita told me that she loved me.
My son said to me,”I am doing my lesson.”
My son told me that he was doing his lesson.
Geeta said to Ram,”I have always helped you.”
Geeta told Ram that she had always helped him.
Ram said to Rita,”I have been waiting for you.”
Ram told Rita that he had been waiting for her
My father said to me,“I wanted to give you a bicycle.”
My father told me that he had wanted to give me a bicycle.
He said to the boys,”I was playing with you.”
He told the boys that he had been playing with them.

Exception : Universal Truth

यदि Inverted Commas के भीतर कोई ऐसा कथन हो जिससे चिरंतन सत्य या सिद्धांत ( Universal Truth ) का बोध हो , तो Reporting Verb के Past Tense में रहने पर भी Reported Speech के Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा ।

जैसे -

Direct
Indirect
He said,“The earth is round.”
He said that the earth is round.
My father said to me,”Honesty is the best policy.”
My father told me that honesty is the best policy.
He said,“Work is worship.”
He said that work is worship.
The teacher said,“The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.”
The teacher said that the sun rises in the east and sets in the West.
He says,“Two and two is four."
He says that two and two is four.
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